Track 3

Track 3

3.1. Mental health of immigrant students and their use of mental health services in High-income countries.
Christelle Dombou (1), Olumuyiwa Omonaiye (2,3), Sarah Fraser (1), Jude-Mary Cénat (4), Sanni Yaya (5,6)
(1)Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
(2)School of Nursing and Midwifery, Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research, Institute for Health Transformation, Deakin University, Australia
(3) Centre for Nursing and Midwifery Research, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
(4)School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
(5)School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
(6)The George Institute for Global Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Background: While the mental health of immigrants is a growing issue that is attracting increasing interest from researchers, the same cannot be said for the mental health of immigrant students especially for international students. Indeed, the mental health of immigrant students and their use of mental health services is still poorly documented despite the significant increase in the number of these students in many high-income countries. Objective: This scoping review aims to providing an overview and exploring gaps in existing research regarding access to mental health care among immigrant students by identifying barriers and facilitators associated to the use of mental health services in high-income countries. Methods: Our research follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. Articles were identified from fives scientific databases (Medline, APA PsycInfo, Education Source, CINAHL, Web of Science). We only included articles written in English: on immigrant students who are at least adolescent (10 years old and above); that addressed the access to and the use of mental health care in High-Income countries. We excluded secondary studies commentary, editorial or opinion piece. Results: We found 4 main categories of barriers and facilitators: Knowledge/Cultural; Attitudinal; Structural/ practical; Relational. Conclusion: The purpose of this scoping review is to better map the literature on the mental health of immigrant students and their use of mental health care services. In doing so, we identified 4 mains categories of barriers and facilitators to access and use of mental health care. The recommendations made in this study could help future studies and reviews to be more focused (according to a specific context and time period). In addition, this will support the development of appropriate interventions that can help improve access and use of mental health services by immigrant students in high-income countries.

Keywords: Mental health; immigrant students; high-income countries; barriers; facilitators

3.2. White and dark red kidney beans improve cecal microbiota composition and may improve neuroinflammation during the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57Bl/6 male mice.
Alexane F. Rodrigue* (1,2), Krista A. Power(1)
(1) School of Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.
(2) BMI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Over-consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) can detrimentally affect intestinal microbiota composition and its activity, leading to increased neuroinflammation through the gut-brain axis. The intestinal microbiota can transform certain dietary components (i.e. fibre & phenolic compounds) into bioactive metabolites that are beneficial to host health. Pulses (common beans, lentils, chickpeas) are rich in fibre and phenolic compounds (which are increased in darker-coloured pulses), and their microbially derived end-products could improve mental health. Obesity has been linked to increased rates of depression, therefore strategies aimed at reducing the negative impact of HFDs on obesity development and the gut-brain axis are needed. The purpose of this study was to determine if HFDs supplemented with physiologically relevant doses of dietary white (WK) and dark red kidney (DK) beans would improve mental health through the gut-brain axis in C57Bl/6 male mice. 5-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice consumed either a HFD (60% kcals from fat, wt/wt), or isocaloric HFD supplemented with either 15% cooked WK (HF+WK) or DK (HF+DK) for 9 weeks. Cecal microbiota composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina Miseq (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). Neuroinflammation of the hippocampus will be analyzed by gene expression through qRT-PCR. Bean consumption increased the richness and diversity (alpha and beta) of the cecal microbiota compared to HFD (q<0.001). Bean consumption also significantly increased the relative abundance of Prevotella and S24-7 (producers of beneficial end-products of digestion) and decreased Bacteroides (producers of putrefactive compounds). To determine if these microbial changes may improve neuroinflammation, the hippocampus will be assessed for expression of inflammatory genes and correlated to microbial abundance. When consumed as part of a HFD, kidney beans lead to significant improvements in microbial composition. Neuroinflammation induced by HFDs has the potential to be reduced by bean consumption, potentially through these changes in the gut microbiota.

Keywords: Obesity, Microbiota, Gut-Brain Axis, Neuroinflammation, Mental Health

3.3. Characterizing the associations between reproductive health and musculoskeletal injuries of female members of the Canadian Armed Forces.
Jessica L. Puranda (1), Danilo F. da Silva(1), Sara S. Souza(1), Chris M. Edwards(1) Taniya S. Nagpal(1) and Kristi B. Adamo(1)
(1)Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Musculoskeletal injuries (MSKi) play a role in member retention in the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). Female military members have higher rates of MSKi than their male counterparts. Further exploration of potential contributors in the Canadian military setting is required. This study explores the association between reproductive health characteristics of female CAF members and MSKi. An electronic survey was made available to present and former CAF members between 18-65 years of age. Responses were collected in English or French between September 2020 and February 2021. Survey items required respondents to provide information related to MSKi (repetitive, acute, fractures), reproductive health and barriers to recruitment and retention. The following reproductive characteristics were assessed in this study: Pregnancy, menopause, amenorrhea, late age of menarche, menstrual irregularities and endometriosis. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations between reproductive characteristics and MSKi. Age, body mass index, total physical activity, rank, parity, dairy consumption, vitamin d and calcium supplementation were included as co-variates. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Approximately 2000 participants consented to the survey with 854 being female. Female CAF members reporting menstrual irregularities vs. not were more likely to report acute injury (adjusted odds ratio, aOR:1.74; 95% confidence interval, CI:1.12;2.71), repetitive strain injury (aOR:1.82; CI:1.11;2.99) and fracture (aOR:2.22; CI:1.27;3.87). The occurrence of endometriosis compared to no endometriosis increased the odds of reporting an acute injury (aOR:2.43; CI:1.04;5.68) and fracture (aOR:2.88; CI:1.24;6.67). The occurrence of secondary amenorrhea compared to those without secondary amenorrhea increased the odds of reporting a repetitive strain injury (aOR:2.88; CI:1.24;6.67). Menstrual irregularities, endometriosis and secondary amenorrhea are associated with increased risk of MSKi in the CAF. Further research should consider investigating strategies to mitigate MSKi risks associated with female reproductive health characteristics to better inform recruitment and retention of female CAF members.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal injuries, Canadian Armed Forces, female reproductive health, menstruation, endometriosis

3.4. Depressive Symptoms in Fathers are Associated with Lower Paternal Sensitivity: A Meta-analysis.
Thomas Trepiak*(1), Audrey-Ann Deneault (1), Jean-François Bureau (1), Philip Trepiak (1)
(1) Faculty of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Introduction: Parental sensitivity is defined as the ability to accurately perceive and to interpret the signals implicit in the child’s behaviour and to respond to them promptly and appropriately (Ainsworth et al., 1978). It is a key aspect of high quality caregiving and an important contributor to positive child development (Zeifman, 2003). Studies of mother-child dyads have shown that depressive symptoms may reduce parental sensitivity. Fewer studies have been conducted with fathers, even if many researchers emphasize the importance of fathers in shaping child development (Cabrera et al., 2018). Among existing research on fathers, results show that depressive symptoms relate to less optimal caregiving in general, but their impact on paternal sensitivity remains unclear (Wilson & Durbin, 2010). Objective: In order to address this question, this study uses a systematic review and meta-analytic techniques to determine whether depressive symptoms in fathers are associated with paternal sensitivity. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched for terms related to paternal sensitivity and depressive symptoms and screened for inclusion based on pre-determined criteria. Twenty-two studies met inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. Results: The results revealed a significant negative correlation (r = -12.04, 95% CI: -0.211 to -0.031), by which higher depressive symptoms are associated with lower sensitivity in fathers. Conclusion: The results of this study show that higher levels of depressive symptoms in fathers were inversely associated with their sensitivity towards their children. Poor paternal mental health has serious implications for the health of men and for their children. Our findings support the need for intervention programs targeted to fathers specifically to help increase their well-being and mental health, and thereby support positive child development.

Keywords: Fathers, meta-analysis, depressive symptoms, paternal sensitivity, mental health

3.5. Cognitive Fatigability and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Persons with Advanced Multiple Sclerosis.
Zain Awadia (1)*, Thomas Edwards (1), Jason A. Berard (1), Lisa A. S. Walker (2), Lara A. Pilutti (2).
(1) Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (2) School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Background Cognitive fatigability (CF) is characterized as the inability to maintain optimal performance throughout the duration of a cognitive task. Typically, cognitive impairment worsens with disability progression in MS; however, research examining CF has been limited to persons with MS who have lower disability. Furthermore, there is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an indicator of exercise training, is positively correlated with cognitive performance in persons with MS; however, the relationship between CRF and CF in MS remains unknown. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to characterize CF in persons with MS with advanced disability. Additionally, this study explored the relationship between CF and CRF. Methods A cross-sectional examination of 20 persons with MS with advanced disability was conducted (mean age=60.1±10.5) years; 80% female; median EDSS=7.0 (IQR=1.0)). Participants completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a recumbent stepper with continuous outcome monitoring (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2peak], work rate [WRpeak]). The 3-second version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure the CF magnitude (CFM) of the sample, expressed as the difference in performance between the first third and last third of the test. Results The mean±SD PASAT score for the sample was 42.9±10.6. The mean CFM was -1.5±2.4. The mean VO2peak and WRpeak of the sample was 11.5±4.1 ml/kg/min and 54.7±26.7 Watts (W), respectively. There was a significant correlation between total PASAT scores and VO2peak (rs=0.57; p=0.009), and between CFM and VO2peak (rs=0.46; p=0.04). No other statistically significant correlations were observed. Conclusions A strong relationship was observed between CF and oxygen consumption (VO2peak); however, this relationship was not consistent across other physiological across other physiological fitness indicators. These results support the possibility of examining exercise training, specifically aerobic exercise, in the management of CF in persons with MS.

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, cognitive fatigability, fitness, PASAT, cognition

3.6. Sleep apnea and triglyceride dynamics.
Renée Morin (1)*, Dr. Jean-François Mauger (1), Dr. Ruwan Amaratunga (2), Dr. Pascal Imbeault (1,2).
(1) School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
(2) Institut du savoir Montfort, Hôpital Montfort, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a sleep disorder frequently observed in individuals living with obesity, consists of repeated involuntary breathing suspensions during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). In humans, acute continuous hypoxia slightly increases plasma triglycerides (TG). However, no study yet compared the postprandial TG response of individuals with or without OSA under intermittent hypoxia. Methods: Using a randomized crossover design, 7 individuals diagnosed with moderate OSA and 8 healthy individuals without OSA were given a meal after which they were exposed for 6 hours to normoxia or intermittent hypoxia (e.g. 15 hypoxic events per hour). Blood lipid levels were measured hourly during each session. Results: Peak postprandial TG concentrations, which occurred at 180 minutes, tended to be 22% higher under IH irrespective of group (condition x time interaction, p = 0.093). This trend toward higher total plasma TG was attributable to increased levels of denser TG-rich lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons (CM) remnants. Irrespective of group, the peak average TG concentrations in denser TRL, which occurred at 180 minutes, was 20% higher under IH (condition x time, p = 0.036), although IH had virtually no impact on denser TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations in the OSA group. Conclusion: Acute intermittent hypoxia tends to negatively affect postprandial TG levels in healthy individuals, which is attributable to an increase in denser TG-carrying lipoprotein levels such as VLDL and CM remnants. This altered postprandial TG response to acute intermittent hypoxia was not observed in individuals with OSA.

Keywords: Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, normobaric hypoxia, obstructive sleep apnea

3.7. Modeling perturbed brain development in autism.
Yassmine Chahid Chentouf*(1), Joseph Leung (2).
(1) Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
(2) The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON.

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a sleep disorder frequently observed in individuals living with obesity, consists of repeated involuntary breathing suspensions during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). In humans, acute continuous hypoxia slightly increases plasma triglycerides (TG). However, no study yet compared the postprandial TG response of individuals with or without OSA under intermittent hypoxia. Methods: Using a randomized crossover design, 7 individuals diagnosed with moderate OSA and 8 healthy individuals without OSA were given a meal after which they were exposed for 6 hours to normoxia or intermittent hypoxia (e.g. 15 hypoxic events per hour). Blood lipid levels were measured hourly during each session. Results: Peak postprandial TG concentrations, which occurred at 180 minutes, tended to be 22% higher under IH irrespective of group (condition x time interaction, p = 0.093). This trend toward higher total plasma TG was attributable to increased levels of denser TG-rich lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons (CM) remnants. Irrespective of group, the peak average TG concentrations in denser TRL, which occurred at 180 minutes, was 20% higher under IH (condition x time, p = 0.036), although IH had virtually no impact on denser TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations in the OSA group. Conclusion: Acute intermittent hypoxia tends to negatively affect postprandial TG levels in healthy individuals, which is attributable to an increase in denser TG-carrying lipoprotein levels such as VLDL and CM remnants. This altered postprandial TG response to acute intermittent hypoxia was not observed in individuals with OSA.

Keywords: Autism, abnormal neurogenesis, Sox2, 3D culture, TBX6.

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