2.1. Assessing the Quality and Impact of Randomized Control Trials in Predatory Journals.
Nikesh Chander (1), Ahmed Al Khalil (2), Joshua Montroy (3), Kelly Cobey (3,4), Agnes Grudniewicz (5), Stephanie Haustein (6), Ajit Rai (2), David Moher (3), Gregory Bryson (3,7), Jasmine Sodhi (3), Daniel McIsaac (3,7), Dean Fergusson (2,3,4), Manoj M Lalu (3,7)
(1) Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
(2) Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
(3) Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON
(4) School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
(5) Telfer School of Management, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
(6) School of Information of Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
(7)Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON.
Background: Predatory journals publish articles with virtually no peer reviewing, editing or quality control. They disseminate research with uncertain quality and reliability. If randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are published in predatory journals, this may pose potential risks as these studies have potential to impact clinical care and healthcare policy. Objective: To characterize potentially predatory anesthesia journals and assess RCTs published in these journals, including their effects on legitimate literature. Methodology: We identified predatory anesthesia journals using Beall’s list and selected RCTs through duplicate, independent screening. We assessed the predatory practices of journals, selecting 11 items encompassed by one of three categories: false or misleading information, deviation from best practices, and lack of transparency. Basic study characteristics, completeness of reporting (selected CONSORT items), and risk of bias (Cochrane risk of bias tool) were assessed and extracted independently in duplicate. We assessed citations of identified papers using Google Scholar, Web of Science, Dimensions, and Microsoft Academic. Results: 5643 articles were screened from 66 journals with 1265 RCTs identified. Journals had a median of 2 (range: 1-5) predatory characteristics across all categories. RCTs were conducted in 63 countries, with a total of 106,934 participants. 287 (23%) reported funding, and 195 (18%) were registered. Reporting was poor, with only 77 (6%) trials reporting all selected CONSORT items. Risk of bias was “unclear” in at least one domain for 1263 (99.8%) articles, and “unclear” for all domains in 257 (20%) articles. Across all databases, articles were cited a mean 3000 times (SD: 1734). 29 Cochrane Systematic Reviews cited RCTs from predatory journals, with 12 included in quantitative analyses. Conclusion: A large number of RCTs have been published in predatory anesthesia journals. The majority of these journals do not engage in standard publishing practices. Despite this, many of these articles are being cited by legitimate sources.
Keyword: Predatory Journals, Journal Assessment, Publishing Practices, Randomized Controlled Trials, Citation Analysis
2.2. The Impact of Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy on the Reflective Functioning of Individuals with Binge-Eating Disorder.
Sydney Slaunwhite-Hay* (1), Camille Garceau (2), Dr. Giorgio Tasca (2)
(1)Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa
(2)School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa
This study uses data from a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effect of Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) on the reflective functioning (RF) of participants diagnosed with binge-eating disorder (BED). Specifically, we are interested in whether receiving GPIP predicts a significantly greater increases in RF scores compared to women with BED in a no-treatment control condition. Reflective functioning is a multidimensional capacity that involves the ability to understand one’s own and others’ behaviour as an expression of mental states (e.g., thoughts, beliefs, emotions). Previous studies have demonstrated that deficits in RF are associated with difficulty in self-reflection and emotion regulation, which may manifest in the form of disordered eating. Fifty-one women and four men diagnosed with BED were recruited for the RCT. Participants completed ten weeks of unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioural therapy model. Researchers then administered the AAI to determine participant attachment style and obtain a score between -1 and 9 on Fonagy’s RF scale. In the study’s second phase, participants were randomly assigned to receive either 16 weekly sessions of GPIP (n=25) or to a no-treatment control condition (n=30). The AAI was re-administered, and RF re-scored six months after the GPIP or the no-treatment control period was finished. A two-way, mixed model ANOVA was utilized to compare RF scores pre- and 6 months post-treatment between the two conditions. We found that RF scores increased significantly for participants who received GPIP compared to participants in the control group, supporting our hypothesis. We report a large effect size for these findings. This study offers evidence that GPIP improves patients’ capacity to reflect on their own and others’ mental states, contributing to knowledge about the benefits of GPIP and informing future treatment development to improve the lives and outcomes of clients with BED.
Keyword: Reflective functioning, mentalization, binge-eating disorder, Group Interpersonal Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, attachment
2.3. “It is not just because of the charges”. Factors affecting utilization of skilled maternal healthcare in rural Edo, Nigeria: A qualitative study.
Ogochukwu Udenigwe (1)*, Friday E Okonofua (2),(3), Lorretta FC Ntoimo (4), Sanni Yaya(5)
(1) School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
(2) Women’s Health and Action Research Centre, KM 11 Lagos-Benin Expressway, Igue-Iyeha, Benin City, Edo State Nigeria
(3) Centre for Excellence in Reproductive Health Innovation, Benin City, Nigeria
(4) Federal University Oye-Ekiti, P. M. B. 373, Km 3 Oye-Are Road, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
(5)School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Background: Existing studies have acknowledged the underutilization of skilled maternal healthcare services among women in rural Nigeria. Consequently, women in rural areas face a disproportionate risk of poor health outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality. Addressing the challenge of non-use of skilled maternal healthcare in rural areas necessitates the involvement of multi-stakeholders across different sectors who have vital roles to play in improving maternal health. This study explores the factors contributing to the non-use of maternal healthcare services in rural areas of Edo, Nigeria from the perspectives of community elders and policymakers. Methods: In this qualitative study, data was collected through 10 community conversations with community elders, and six key informant interviews with policymakers in rural areas of Edo State, Nigeria. Data was analyzed using an iterative process of inductive and deductive approaches. Results: Non utilization of maternal health services was attributed to poor quality of care. Notions of poor quality of care included shortages in skilled healthcare workers, apathy and abusive behaviours from healthcare providers, lack of life-saving equipment, and lack of safe skilled pregnancy care. Non-use was also attributed to women’s complex utilization patterns which involved a combination of different types of healthcare services, including traditional care. Participants also identified affordability and accessibility factors as deterrents to women’s use of skilled maternal healthcare. Conclusion: The emerging findings on pregnant women’s combined use of different types of care highlight the need to improve the quality, availability, accessibility, and the affordability of skilled maternal care for rural women in Nigeria.
2.4. The influence of emotion on working memory: fMRI findings among men with histories of childhood sexual abuse.
Michel Vezarov* (1), Carley Chiasson (2), Andra Smith (3)
(1) School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.
(2) Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
(3) Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, Ottawa, ON. School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Background: Childhood maltreatment can have detrimental consequences on individual wellbeing and cognitive functioning. One type of childhood maltreatment that remains stigmatized and under-researched among men is child sexual abuse (CSA). Research examining the neurophysiological consequences of CSA in males is limited even further. Objective: To provide insight into the neural basis of the impact of CSA during two working memory tasks. Participants and Setting: The study took place at a local hospital, the participants were 16 CSA males with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; CSA+PTSD n = 7, CSA-PTSD n = 9) and healthy control males (n = 13). Methods: Participants completed a letter n-back task and an emotional picture n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure working memory and the influence of emotion on working memory. Results: In the letter n-back task, men with CSA+PTSD had less activation in the cerebellum and left fusiform gyrus compared to CSA-PTSD men. During the working memory task with negative emotional pictures the control group had greater frontal activation, while the CSAPTSD group had greater limbic activation. Conclusions: This study provides empirical evidence of the impact CSA can have on men regarding working memory when negative stimuli are involved. It highlights that CSA, even without a diagnosis of PTSD, can have a significant neurophysiological impact. It also provides clinicians with necessary information to help them with well-being support and also with cognitive rehabilitation or working memory techniques to help with potential day to day challenges.
Keyword: Working memory, Emotion, Maltreatment, Childhood sexual abuse, Male, fMRI
2.5. The Ability of Gender-Related Variables to Predict Functional Capacity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease at Cardiac Rehabilitation Intake.
Katelyn Comeau*(1,2), Daniele Chirico (3,4), Tasuku Terada (1), Sol Vidal Amela (1,2), & Jennifer L. Reed (1,2,5)
(1) Exercise Physiology and Cardiovascular Health Lab, University of Ottawa Heart Institute
(2) School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa
(3) TotalCardiology Rehabilitation, Calgary, Alberta
(4) Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary
(5) School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa.
Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients present with low cardiorespiratory fitness and levels of physical activity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a secondary prevention program aimed at improving patients’ ability to perform activities of daily living and manage their condition. Distance walked during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) indicates the patients’ level of functional capacity, which is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. The sex-differences in health outcomes of CAD patients have been studied. Yet, less is known regarding the influence of gender, which encompasses socially constructed roles, behaviours and self-expressions. CR programs lack consideration of gender-related variables and their effects on functional capacity. Objective: This study aimed to determine the predictive associations of gender-related variables on functional capacity at CR intake. Methods: CAD patients who underwent coronary revascularization procedures and completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, a measure of masculine and feminine personality traits) and a 6MWT participated. Marital status, education level and occupation status were retrieved from patients’ charts. Linear regression models were used to test our objective. Revascularization procedure, age, sex and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates as they have been shown to impact 6MWT distance. Results: A total of 126 participants (106 male, 20 female) were included. 6MWT distance was predicted by BSRI feminine (p=0.025, ß=-0.206), revascularization procedure (p=0.027, ß=-0.188), sex (p=0.012, ß=-0.221) and BMI (p<0.001, ß=-0.498, R2=0.576). Due to the largely male sample (typical of CR), a male only analysis was also performed. In males only, 6MWT distance was predicted by BSRI feminine (p=0.025, ß=-0.232), revascularization procedure (p=0.031, ß=-0.199) and BMI (p<0.001, ß=-0.493, R2=0.566). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that CAD patients who identify with more feminine personality traits have a lower functional capacity at CR intake and therefore, gender-related variables hold predictive value for determining functional capacity at CR intake.
Keyword: Cardiac Rehabilitation, Gender, Functional Capacity
2.6. Effect of a kidney bean supplemented weight-loss intervention on intestinal and mental health in obese C57Bl/6 mice.
Valérie Roumelis (1), Salma Mahmoodianfard (2), Lalit Kishore (3), Giorgio Freije (1), Krista A. Power (3)
(1) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5
(2) School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5
(3)School of Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5
Introduction: Intestinal and mental health impairments are comorbid to obesity, but can be alleviated by weight-loss via calorie reduction (CR). Additionally, increasing evidence supports the gut-brain axis as a target for intervention for mental health, in particular, via modulation of microbially-produced short-chain fatty-acids (SCFAs). SCFAs are produced from bacterial fermentation of foods containing non-digestible carbohydrates, like common beans. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the impact of white and dark red kidney beans supplemented into a CR diet on intestinal and mental health in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Methods: High-fat diet-induced obese C57Bl/6 male mice were randomized into 4 groups: obesity control (HFD), CR and CR supplemented with 15% cooked white (CRWB) or dark red kidney beans (CRDB) (n= 12/group), and were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks. Body weight (BW) was measured twice/week; body composition was assessed by echo MRI at week 10 and 18. To assess mental health, nest building activity and beam break were conducted. Fecal SCFAs were measured at the end of the intervention. Results: The body weight gain was attenuated significantly (p<0.05) in all CR groups compared to HFD with greater effect in CR compared to CRWB and CRDB. However, lean mass increased significantly within CRWB and CRDB during the intervention without any difference between beans groups. Furthermore, there was significant increase in total SCFAs including acetate, propionate and butyrate in CRWB and CRDB groups in comparison to HFD. However, there was no significant different found in nesting score and activity levels the beans groups. Conclusions: Overall, while CR was more effective in reducing weight gain, mice consuming bean supplemented diets had improved intestinal health, as indicated by increased SCFA concentrations. Mental health outcomes were not improved by CR.
Keyword: Beans, mental health, short-chain fatty acids, intestinal health, fibre
2.7. Digital Storytelling- A Methodology to Give Voice to People with Schizophrenia.
Liquaa Wazni RN, PhD (c)*1, Wendy Gifford RN, PhD1, Amelie Perron RN, PhD1
(1)Faculty of Health Sciences/School of Nursing, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON
Introduction: People with schizophrenia die on average 15-20 years earlier than normal due to physical illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Despite substantial evidence about the importance of physical health management of people with schizophrenia to improve quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality, there is limited research on power imbalances and unjust conditions that lead to health problems and silencing of people with schizophrenia. Bringing the experiences of people with schizophrenia to light for a broader audience requires methodologies that can authentically engage them to have a direct and active role in knowledge production. The evidence produced in this way can further help engage policymakers and health care providers to effect change. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to present how digital storytelling was used with people with schizophrenia as a means of expressing their voice in a collaborative research process. Methods: Digital storytelling was used to produce 6 short videos, capturing personal stories of people with schizophrenia in relation to their physical health needs and concerns, including the barriers and facilitators to managing their physical health. The videos were presented in 2 sharing sessions with a total of 14 nurses and healthcare leaders to evaluate the impact of the videos on leaders and practitioners. Results: In their digital stories, participants talked about their embodied experiences and their invisibility in the healthcare system. They exposed the paternalistic approaches of most healthcare providers to addressing their physical health problems and revealed various strategies for levelling the field and compensating for lack of power and their lost identity. Conclusions: By using the power of visual imagery, digital storytelling helped to amplify messages, raise awareness, emphasize core values of empathy and compassion, challenge hegemonic and stigmatizing assumptions about a particular population, and transform attitudes and behaviours.
Keyword: Digital Storytelling, Schizophrenia, Nursing, Collaborative research, Qualitative